Partial Least Squares Modelling of Classroom Layouts to Learning Motivation and Student Performance


  • Karl Benedict Ong, Jazmin Tangsoc, Jose Edgar Mutuc Richard Li, Willy Zalatar


Building constructions and renovations require large amount of investments for educational institutions. However, classroom layout is a low-cost design factor that can significantly improve the performances of students. This research considered seat arrangement, seat distances, and seat assignment schemes, and its relationship to learning motivation and student performance. Mediating factors, which are social interaction and comfort level, found significant were included in the analysis of the relationships.

Through a partial least squares modelling in SMART PLS, it was found that all path coefficients are supported, therefore significant. However, their ability to predict the endogenous variables are unequal. Social interaction is a strong predictor while participation level is a stronger indicator of student performance. Multi-group analyses on the layout design components and other factors uncovered that the significance of motivation and participation level of students are greatest for the u-shaped layout, and seat distances influence the relationships for boxed and u-shaped, but not for clustered design.