Inhibiting Gram Negative Bacterial Drug Efflux Pump by Combating Medicinal Plants: Bianceaesappan, Indigoferaaspalathoide Sand Swertiachirayita by in Vitro and in Silico Analysis


  • Praneesh Kerben Ayyaswam, Ayantika Dutta Choudury, Sirajdeen Mohammed Faiz,MayankKohli, Rajini. M, Shivaji Bole,Kiran Kumar K.M, Kamatchi.C


Resistance to fluoroquinolones mainly reveals the decrease in drug accumulation due to presence of efflux pumps. These efflux pumps are recognized as a key factors of Antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The drug resistant isolates are not receptive to diverse mode of action of antibiotics which are in treatment options. To combat the AMR, efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) are essential. Therefore the necessity of having to potentiate the antibiotics along with plant compounds. Hence in our investigation, ethanolic extracts of Bianceaesappan, Indigoferaaspalathoides and Swertiachirayita were used to screen the antibacterial activity and synergistic interaction with ciprofloxacin against fluoroquiolone resistant bacteria. It’s quite essential to do in silico analysis to identify the effective inhibitor. Overall there are thirty two isolates which includes eighteen of E.coli and fourteen ofKlebsiellapneumoniae collected from The Oxford Medical College, Hospital & Research Jigala, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. These isolates were screened for antimicrobial susceptibility test (AST), and found that 87% resistant to ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin. These resistant isolates were screened by MIC – ciprofloxacin and EtBr plate assay in order to check the existence of efflux pump. The increased MIC for ciprofloxacin and less amount of fluorescence suggested that, the presence of efflux pump in three E.coli (E1, E2 and E3) . In the synergistic studies, particular extract of Bianceaesappan showed reduction in MIC along with ciprofloxacin and followed by Indigoferaaspalathoides and Swertiachirayita extracts. Further, in silico analysis were carried to scrutinize the effective compounds, as efflux pump inhibitor. The crystal structure of AcrB from PDB id : 5ENO, and 2W1B displayed better interaction and binding energy with ligands of ethanolic extract of Bianceaesappan, and followed by Indigoferaaspalathoides and Swertiachirayita, as compared to control (Pa?N). Thus, the plant based phytomolecules has promising role to inhibit the bacterial efflux pump.
Keywords- Antibacterial activity, Minimum inhibitory concentration, Synergistic studies, Phenylalanine-arginine ? Naphthylamide,