Development of Marker less Augmented Reality for Cardiovascular System in Anatomy and Physiology Courses for Physiotherapy Education


  • Nurul Shuhadah Rosni
  • Zahidah Abd Kadir
  • Megat Norulazmi Megat Mohamed Noor
  • Zaidatul Husna Abdul Rahman
  • Nurulain Abu Bakar


This paper focuses on the development of markerless Augmented Reality (AR) using ARCore platform, where interactive three-dimensional (3D) content was designed and developed based on the learning outcome syllabus to enhance the visualization and understanding of the anatomy and physiology for cardiovascular system topic. Currently, learning method is based on 2D images and slides, plastic models and cadavers have to deal with students’ experience issues such as lack of interactive, uneasy feeling with dead body and cadavers storing and donation. Therefore, more advances using technology such as Augmented Reality (AR) in learning method are needed to overcome the current gap and enhance the students’ learning. Thus, this study aims to develop markerless AR specifically focus on the cardiovascular system for undergraduate physiotherapy program at UniKL, RCMP. In this study, we describe a method used to create markerless AR content using 3D data from MRI images and 3D unity as an authoring tool. We present three processes, where the first design consideration based on author’s previous works derived from systematic search strategy were outlined, the second 3D model was developed using a real object and subsequently converted to an AR asset that can be linked to a unique markerless using ARCore platform and the third AR content creation using 3D unity authoring tool. This application provides a better visualization for the anatomical parts to support for an innovative and flexible learning process. We have successfully analyzed the design consideration using a systematic search strategy and developed the markerless AR specifically for cardiovascular system in anatomy and physiology courses. This study has contributed to knowledge in design and development of AR used in physiotherapy education. Therefore, this will be a step forward to an exploration of design-based research for an AR benefit in experienced-learning approach application.