Empirical Study of GBI on Istana Jahar Adaptive Reuse to Kelantan Royal Customs Museum Focusing on Ventilation System
The conversion of Istana Jahar, a traditional Malay building, gives rise to a conflict between preserving the heritage building or renovating excessively to create a proper museum in which to place valuable artifacts. This article analyses the appropriateness of adapting Istana Jahar, Kelantan, by converting it into Kelantan Royal Customs Museum using recommended Green Building Index (GBI) tools. Istana Jahar was a presidential palace built using traditional Malay architectural technology with two-storey timber construction. It is the only building in Kelantan that has been listed on the National Heritage Register List and has the highest national heritage recognition. At present, no vernacular building based on traditional Malays architecture has been certified as a green building. This study assessed the suitability of adapting a reused building into a sustainable heritage building. The ventilation system was assessed using a survey administered to 95 participants on air quality comfort in the building. The findings showed that Istana Jahar had not been adequately designated as a museum as artifacts are exposed directly to high temperature inside the building. As a museum, daytime temperature and sunlight need to be considered in Istana Jahar, whereby the interior must be fitted with an air-conditioning system to preserve the artifacts displayed. Thus, Istana Jahar is most appropriate for preservation as a heritage building and is not suitable to adopt as a royal museum without excessive renovation.